Scott Carpenter is the managing director of Jigsaw, a Google company, where he oversees business operations and thought-leadership efforts around such topics as disinformation, online harassment, counter radicalization, and repressive censorship. Prior to Jigsaw, Mr Carpenter was among the founding team members of Google Ideas in 2011. He remains an adjunct fellow at the Washington Institute for Near East Policy. Previously, Mr Carpenter served as deputy assistant secretary of State in the Bureau of Near East Affairs. His other roles in government include director of governance for the Coalition Provisional Authority in Iraq and deputy assistant secretary in the Bureau of Human Rights and Democracy. Earlier in his career, Scott worked for the International Republican Institute (IRI). Mr Carpenter has an MA in economics and European studies from the Johns Hopkins University School of Advanced International Studies and is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations.