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LMC 2022

Economic Pressure, Hard Foreign Policy Tool?

Queen, David Bowie, Under Pressure [1981]

The European Union has both the world’s largest economy in terms of GDP per capita and a firm commitment to democratic standards and values. Much of its power is normative and soft, but it has also sought to influence the mindsets and behaviours of partners through economic and regulatory means. In February 2021, the European Commission set out a new trade strategy based on the concept of ‘Open Strategic Autonomy’ which strives for values-based open and sustainable world trade.


Daniel Fried

Retired US Diplomat, Weiser Family Distinguished Fellow at the Atlantic Council, Board of Directors, National Endowment for Democracy

Linas Linkevicius
Linas Linkevičius

Ambassador-at-large, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Lithuania

Nicolas Tenzer

Chairman, Centre for Study and Reseach on Political Decision

Nathalie Tocci

Director of the Istituto Affari Internazionali


Steven Blockmans

Director Of Research at the Centre for European Policy Studies

  • Can the EU maintain leadership in the shift from a norms- to a power-based world order?
  • How effective are sanctions as a foreign policy instrument?
  • Can the EU respond collectively to economic coercion?
  • How will Russia’s aggression against Ukraine and China’s growing ambitions affect the EU’s attitudes to global power?
  • How does the US fit into this picture?

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