Rose Gottemoeller is currently the Deputy Secretary General of NATO. She took up her position in October 2016, after serving nearly fi ve years as the Under Secretary for Arms Control and International Security at the U.S. Department of State. As Under-Secretary, Gottemoeller advised the Secretary of State on arms control, nonproliferation and political-military affairs. She was acting in this position from 2012 to 2014, while concurrently serving as Assistant Secretary of State for the Bureau of Arms Control, Verifi cation and Compliance (2009-2014). In this capacity, she was the chief U.S. negotiator of the New Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (New START) with the Russian Federation, which entered into force on February 5, 2011 and is currently in implementation.